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注意∣关于指弹,我们是认真滴!2019亚洲原声吉他论坛回放(三)

2019-8-14 21:48| 发布者: 巡警| 查看: 260| 评论: 0

摘要: 原创:指弹中国指弹吉他对一个论坛来说,百花齐放,百家争鸣是其基本要求,本次原声吉他论坛虽戴上了亚洲这顶帽子,但其头脑里装的世界吉他文化的交流与碰撞,尽任路途遥远,我们一直在路上。前面两期回顾都来源于国 ...


 指弹中国 指弹吉他 

对一个论坛来说,百花齐放,百家争鸣是其基本要求,本次原声吉他论坛虽戴上了亚洲这顶帽子,但其头脑里装的世界吉他文化的交流与碰撞,尽任路途遥远,我们一直在路上。



前面两期回顾都来源于国内吉他演奏家的分享,这次我们换个口味,把视角从大中华移向欧美,听听Richard,Moller,Bensusan对于吉他音乐的见解。


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美国吉他文化源远流长,Richard向我们介绍了对美国指弹吉他有着深刻影响的老前辈,他们的指弹技巧风格被一代代吉他手学习模仿,而正是这些领路人的付出,当今的指弹吉他才能如此多彩,在此对他们表示崇高的敬意!


美国指弹吉他发展 - Richard Smith



原稿:


Development of American fingerstyle guitar


American finger style guitar has taken many forms in the last Hundred years.


From the early blues playing of Robert Johnson, Blind Blake, Tampa Red, Blind Lemon Jefferson to the 1970’s era traditionalists such as John Fahey and Leo Kottke, to the more modern percussive “tapping” styles of of Michael Hedges, Andy McKee, Don Ross, Preston Reed and others.


The focus here will be the Thumb Picking style that originated in Kentucky.


The Blues playing of Arnold Schultz, Ike Everly (The Everly Brothers father) and Mose Rager led to influencing generations of guitar players, and these names today are recognized and celebrated annually at the Thumbpickers convention that takes place in Drakesboro KY every year。


One of the most notable and influential thumbpickers from this region was Merle Travis。

Merle’s country song writing and renditions of old swing and pop songs were released on the “Capitol records” label out of California (where Merle lived for a while and was featured in a few Hollywood movies)。


The distribution and radio AirPlay of this music garnered attention back in the 1940s and 50s, and led to Merle Travis becoming a popular act back in that era, gaining national notoriety。


This style, where the thumb is the rhythm section on the three bass strings, and the finger plays the melody is similar to the solo style of ragtime piano, whereas the left hand plays the rhythm and right hand plays the melody。


This allows for the guitar player to play completely unaccompanied with a constant rhythm, or accompanied by a band to create a bigger sound and allow for more intricate lead lines that can only be accessed when all fingers are free instead of some holding down the rhythm section, as in a more traditional ensemble sense.


Typically, this style is played with a thumb pick, worn on the thumb of the right hand。 The thumb pick gives the bass notes a more percussive sound than a bare thumb or thumbnail, and tends to help to drive the groove a little harder。

Merle Travis’ influence can be heard today, and back in the 1940s had particular influence on one notable guitar player in particular: Chet Atkins, who later became one of the people most responsible for the “Nashville Sound”, a slick, smooth sounding and very popular brand of Country Music back in the 1960’s and 70’s。


Chet Atkins took the influences of Merle Travis, Les Paul, Django Reinhardt and Andres Segovia, and merged many of the ideas and techniques of these various guitar players to create his own unique style.


Chet was born in Luttrell TN, near Knoxville and grew up playing locally and on local radio before he took the music to Nashville and began playing with the Carter Family。 With an RCA label record deal, Chet’s music became known worldwide。


Releasing 88 studio albums under his own name, Chet also played on many recording sessions in the early days, and produced many records for RCA, including records for Elvis Presley, Jim Reeves, Dolly Parton, Waylon Jennings, Willie Nelson, Charlie Pride and many others.


The commercial success of these records was whet allowed Nashville’s “Music Row” Recording studios and publishing houses Downtown on 16th 17th and 18th Avenue to flourish from the 1950’s all the way to more recent times as digital technology has now allowed for much cheaper productions and home recording studios to flourish, causing Music row to succumb to other real estate investments while the recording industry is now much more spread out over the greater Nashville area.


In recent years, The city has become a boom town, with one hundred people moving to town daily。


The musical influence of the Thumbpicking style of guitar is heard everywhere and has influenced generations of players... notably George Harrison, Jerry Reed, Nokie Edwards, Tommy Emmanuel, Brent Mason, Duane Eddy, Steve Wariner and many more.


This style has generally been associated with certain brands and styles of guitar。


Merle Travis playing the Gibson Super 400, Chet Atkins with the Gretsch 6120 and Country Gentleman, while acoustically both playing large body Martin or Gibson guitars.


Along with the electric side of thumbpicking, a “slapback” delay was and still is often used。


This was popularized initially by Les Paul, who used this effect to create part of his own signature sound, and was used extensively on guitars and vocals in the 50’s creating what has become a large part of the Rockabilly and early “Sun Records” sound。


Lately, the acoustic trend with this style of fingerpicking has trended towards the Maton brand with Tommy Emmanuel being their main endorser and touring the world, building the brand.


Some lesser known but highly respected fingerpickers on the scene today that play this style are Thom Bresh, Joe Robinson, Brooks Robertson, John Knowles, Eddie Pennington, Guy Van Duser, Craig Dobbins, John McClellan, Pat Kirtley, Pat Donahue, Jim Hurst and others.

As Fingerstyle guitar moves into the future, it continues to borrow from every style and evolve technically and harmonically, as do other styles.


译文:


美国指弹吉他发展


在过去的一百年里,美国指弹风格不断演变,从早期的布鲁斯演奏家Robert Johnson, Blind Blake, Tampa Red, Blind Lemon Jefferson到20世纪70年代的传统派,比如John Fahey 和 Leo Kottke,再到现代的敲击风格比如Michael Hedges, Andy McKee, Don Ross, Preston Reed等等。


今天重点要讲的就是源于肯塔基州的指套演奏风格。布鲁斯演奏家Arnold Schultz, Ike Everly(everly兄弟的父亲)以及Mose Rager对于之后的吉他手有着深刻影响,至今这些人的名字都会在每年在肯塔基州举办的指套演奏音乐节上出现和被纪念。


其中这个领域里最著名最有影响力的指套演奏家是Merle Travis,Merle创作的乡村音乐以及改编的一些过去的Swing和流行歌曲发布在位于加州的Capitol唱片公司(Merle曾生活在加利福利亚,并且那个地方出现在一些好莱坞电影里面)。


这些音乐通过发行和电台传播在20世纪四五十年代引起了人们的关注,并让Merle Travis在那个时代大受欢迎,获得了全国性的声誉。


这种风格,拇指负责三个低音弦上的节奏部分,手指弹奏的旋律部分类似于钢琴独奏ragtime,左手演奏节奏,右手演奏旋律。这使得吉他演奏者可以完全不跟随恒定的节奏演奏,或伴随着乐队创造更大的声音并可以创造更复杂的音乐线,在传统观念里只有当所有手指都松开才可以做到这些。


通常情况下,这种风格是用拇指套进行演奏,戴在右手的拇指上。 拇指指套弹奏的低音比拇指或指甲更具冲击力,并且有助于更有力量地进行groove。


Merle Travis的影响力今天仍可以感受到,早在20世纪40年代就影响了一位著名的吉他手:Chet Atkins,他后来成为了“纳什维尔之声”的负责人之一,代表着圆润,流畅的声音,同时也是1960年代和70年代非常受欢迎的乡村音乐品牌。


这些大师的演奏观念和技巧融合起来,形成了自己独特的风格。


Chet出生在田纳西州Luttrell,靠近诺克斯维尔,他在当地演出并参加广播节目,然后他将音乐带到纳什维尔并开始与Carter家族一起玩音乐。通过与RCA唱片的合约,Chet的音乐在全球享有盛名。


江苏快三开奖结果Chet以自己的名义发行了88张录音室专辑,在早期也参加了很多录音,并为RCA制作了许多唱片,包括Elvis Presley,Jim Reeves,Dolly Parton,Waylon Jennings,Willie Nelson,Charlie Pride和其他人的唱片。


这些唱片的商业成功让位于市中心16,17,18大道的纳什维尔“Music Row”录音室和出版社从1950年代一直蓬勃发展到最近的时代,因为当今数字技术制作成本更低,家庭唱片公司蓬勃发展,导致“Music Row”屈服于房地产投资,而唱片行业现在更加分散在纳什维尔地区以外。


近年来,这个城市已经成为一个繁荣的城市,每天有100人搬到城里。


这个拇指套风格的吉他音乐影响力随处可见,并且影响了一代代吉他手,尤其是George Harrison,Jerry Reed,Nokie Edwards,Tommy Emmanuel,Brent Mason,Duane Eddy,Steve Wariner等等。


这种风格逐渐和特定品牌和风格的吉他相联系起来,Merle Travis用的是Gibson Super 400,Chet Atkins用的是Gretsch 6120 和 Country Gentleman,原声吉他都是用大桶型马丁或者吉普森

与电吉他上的指套演奏法一样,“slapback”延时同样被经常使用。最初由Les Paul推广,他使用这种效果创造了他自己的标志性声音,并在50年代广泛用于吉他和人声,创造了大部分乡村摇滚乐和早期“太阳唱片”的声音。


后来,这种原声吉他指套风格趋势开始趋向于Maton吉他,随着 Tommy Emmanuel成为他们的主要代言人并且在全世界进行巡演从而让这个品牌壮大。在当今的音乐舞台上一些不怎么知名但值得尊重的指套演奏家也在演奏这样的风格,比如Thom Bresh, Joe Robinson, Brooks Robertson, John Knowles, Eddie Pennington, Guy Van Duser, Craig Dobbins, John McClellan, Pat Kirtley, Pat Donahue, Jim Hurst 等等。指弹吉他朝着未来发展,会像其他音乐一样,不断借鉴其他风格并科学而和谐的演变下去。



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